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you may encounter are part of the arachnid and insect classes such as Wood Ticks, Deer Ticks, Mosquitos, Bed Bugs, Fleas, and Mites. Typically, bites from these blood feeding pests found on a human will result in a red, raised, itchy irritation that may be obviously to the naked eye. When some insects feed on their host the insects will plunge a needle like appendage called a proboscis which typically contains two hollow tubes -one used to inject saliva that contains an anticoagulant which allows the blood from the host to feed freely through the second tube. Most insects will feed for 2 to 5 minutes or until disturbed, at that point the insect may relocate to a newer site on the host or move on.
Bed Bug Cimex Lectularius are reddish-brown, flattened, oval, and wingless, with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. A common misconception is that they are not visible to the naked eye. Adults grow to 4–5 mm (1/8 – 3/16?) in length and do not move quickly enough to escape the notice of an attentive observer. Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color and become browner as they molt and reach maturity. In size, they are often compared to lentils or apple seeds. Bedbugs are generally active just before dawn, with a peak feeding period about an hour before sunrise. However, they may attempt to feed at other times, given the opportunity, and have been observed to feed at any time of the day. They climb the walls to the ceiling and jump down on feeling a heat wave. Attracted by warmth and the presence of carbon dioxide, the bug pierces the skin of its host with two hollow tubes. With one tube it injects its saliva, which contains anticoagulants and anesthetics, while with the other it withdraws the blood of its host. After feeding for about five minutes, the bug returns to its hiding place. The bites cannot usually be felt until some minutes or hours later, as a dermatological reaction to the injected agents, and the first indication of a bite usually comes from the desire to scratch the bite site. Because of their dislike for sunlight, bedbugs come out at night. Although bedbugs can live for a year or as much as eighteen months without feeding, they typically seek blood every five to ten days. Bedbugs that go dormant for lack of food often live longer than a year, well-fed specimens typically live six to nine months.
Found globally, the Bed bug’s belligerent biology allows infestations to become common within hotels, multiple-unit housing, single-family homes, and many other structures and facilities. Regrettably, Bed bugs disproportionately affect residents of low-income housing. Intimately associated with human habitation, Bed bugs find refuge within almost any crack or crevice. Emerging at night, Bed bugs indiscriminately host-search for a blood meal. With simple antennae and clearly visible legs, adult Bed bugs are 6 mm, flattened-unfed (top to bottom), oval shaped, and reddish brown (changing to dark mahogany after recently feeding). Wing buds are visible at the front of the abdomen. Bed bugs mate off the host. A Bed bug female can place/attach up to 200 eggs within micro-structural areas at a rate of four to five per day. Environmental temperatures must remain above 10°C to 13°C (50°F to 55°F) for emergence. Emergent nymphs resemble adults and develop through five molts. Maturation time required is a few weeks to several months (average about 4 months) depending upon temperature and host availability. Several generations per year are possible. Nymphs feed upon human and companion animal blood. Feeding generally takes 10 minutes. Heavy infestations cause a characteristic smell resulting from a combination of feces and scent gland secretions. In a single feeding, Bed bugs can ingest blood up to seven times their body weight. Prolonged periods of not feeding may occur.
Bed bugs are understood not to vector disease pathogens, although ongoing research continues. Research does indicate that Bed bugs are capable of carrying pathogens. Currently, the greatest public heath nuisance resulting from Bed bugs is cimicosis (ongoing and repetitive bites). Bed bugs are suggested to lower social standards within an area of infested structures (inhabitants are tempted to move away or relocate to avoid infestations and the associated stigma). Medical opinion and legal precedent strongly suggest cimicosis constitutes a disease state when coupled with certain sociopathies, psychopathies, or somatoform disorders. A perfectly adapted and belligerent parasite, the Bed bug both challenges and threatens public health. Pest management professionals (PMPs) are challenged and threatened by Bed bug liability. Liability stems from uncertainty and is reduced by the certainty of competency through best practices. source email received 6/12/2013 2:04 pm from Direct To You – Bed Bug Management [PK@ncmnews.com]
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